An auto-encoder is a sequential neural network, consisting of two components, the encoder and the decoder.

Let’s say we were dealing with images. Our encoder would extract features from the image which would reduce some components like its height and width, but makes a latent representation for the image. This latent representation just means the neural network only captures the most relevant characteristics of the input.

The decoder is the part of the neural network which learns how to reconstruct the data from the encoded version. …


The brain is a miraculous organ, and that's not a secret to anyone. Our brains may only be 3 pounds, however, it's the powerhouse of intelligence, interpretation, initiating body movement, and is the steering wheel that controls all of our behaviours.

Although the brain is one of the most important organs within all living organisms, neuroscientists still don’t understand nor can comprehend how some components within the brain work. …


Today doctors have a limited view of what goes on in our body.

They can talk to us, take scans, run tests, and examine genetics, which all play as powerful tools for diagnosing an illness, but currently, there is only so much you can do in terms of early diagnoses.

However, that could all change because the future of brain-computer interfaces are on the tips of our fingers.

You might think I’m joking, but check this out:

Neural Dust Sensor

This little thing on the finger above, is a Neural Dust sensor, about the size of a grain of sand.

One day, we…


I don’t have many clear memories from my early childhood.

In fact, most of my hazy memories consist of me playing log tag outside with my friends, sharing snacks at lunch, throwing crabapples at moving cars (yeah… my friends and I probably shouldn’t have done this), and trading Pokemon cards at recess.

Although, there is one memory that I clearly remember from my early childhood, and it’s one I’ll never forget.

It happened in the first grade, during storytime. I was bored, and instead of paying attention to my teacher, naturally, I let my mind wander around its own thoughts.


To some people, the idea of a brain-computer interface may seem alarming, if not scary.

There are a lot of dystopian ideas associated with these devices, such as that people will be able to control your mind, telepathy, A.I. will take over your brains, you’ll become a cyborg.

Although brain-comper interfaces don’t currently serve these purposes, maybe one day they will be able to do such futuristic things.

In this article, I’ll give you a brief insight into the purposes of brain-computer interfaces, and how they are being implemented today to change our future.

Before we dive into brain-computer interfaces…


The Canadian Cancer Society presents the following statistics related to brain tumours in 2020:

  • Approximately 3,000 Canadians are to be diagnosed with brain and spinal cord cancer
  • An estimated 2,500 Canadians will die from brain and spinal cord cancer
  • Approximately 1,700 men will be diagnosed with brain and spinal cord cancer
  • Out of these 1,700 men, 1400 of them will die from the cancer
  • 1,350 women will be diagnosed with brain and spinal cord cancer
  • Out of these 1,350 women, 1,050 will die from it

The Brain Tumour Charity also states that brain tumours are the biggest cancer killer of…


Some Context

If you don’t already know, I belong to an amazing STEM program called The Knowledge Society. During the month of November, innovators from TKS Toronto had the opportunity in teams to come up with a solution to improve customer service at Instacart. My group decided to target the produce issue at Instacart since it has been known that some consumers have received rotten produce from shoppers.


Image from: Cell

It’s insane how you can detect pneumonia in images using deep learning models, saving an individual’s life. According to the World Health Organization, pneumonia kills around 2 million children under the age of 5 years and is repeatedly estimated as the single leading cause of child mortality. This means that pneumonia kills more children than HIV, malaria, and measles combined.

Additionally, the World Health Organization states that 95 % of childhood pneumonia occurs in developing countries, more specifically in the regions of Southeast Asia and Africa. What causes pneumonia? Bacterial and viral pathogens are the leading causes.

Bacterial and viral…


What is K-Nearest Neighbour?

K-Nearest Neighbour, or otherwise known as KNN is a machine learning algorithm that has a list of available cases and classifies data based on a similarity measure system. This model partakes in supervised learning and is most commonly used as a regression algorithm.

What does it mean for a model to be supervised?

I bet many of you have had to deal with little children, whether it’d be younger siblings, cousins, neighbours, and the list goes on. Young children are curious about their surroundings and curious to learn about the things around them in general.

We can think of our…


Heads Up

Just a heads up, I programmed this neural network in Python using PyTorch. I also wrote my model in Pycharm but I would advise that if you choose to write this code (or really any deep learning model), use Google Colaboratory or Jupyter Notebooks (unless you can train models on your GPU). I recommend this because it will take a bit of time for your model to perform (took 5 minutes each time for this particular project).

Additionally, this article is not meant for someone who is new to programming. In fact, if you are new to programming, I strongly…

Ashley C

Innovator and AI enthusiast

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